REVIEW PAPER
Biomass in the fuel mix of the Polish energy and heating sector
 
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SGS Polska, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Ilona Olsztyńska   

SGS Polska, Warszawa, Poland
Submission date: 2019-07-19
Final revision date: 2019-08-20
Acceptance date: 2019-08-23
Publication date: 2019-09-27
 
Polityka Energetyczna – Energy Policy Journal 2019;22(3):99–118
 
KEYWORDS
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ABSTRACT
In 2008, the European Union adopted the climate and energy package. It foresees the three most important goals to achieve by 2020 in the field of energy: 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, 20% share of energy from renewable sources in total energy consumption in the EU, 20% increase in EU energy efficiency. Therefore, individual countries were obliged to move away from fossil fuels for renewable energy production. Depending on the capabilities of each country and the development of renewable energy, various goals have been set for individual countries. For Poland, the share of RES energy in total energy consumption has been set at 15% (Directive 2009). The Polish energy policy until 2030 includes state strategies in the field of implementation of tasks and objectives in the area of energy resulting from the need to build national security and EU regulation. The challenges of the current national energy industry include increasing demand for energy and implementation of international commitments in the area of environmental and climate protection (Policy 2009). Contemporary domestic energy is characterized by a high share of fossil fuels, mainly coal, in the production of electricity and heat, and the different share of RES energy in individual technologies and energy sectors. Poland has significant natural resources, which are a source of biomass for energy purposes. Large energy units dominate in the national consumption of biomass while the share of heating plants is still insignificant (Olsztyńska 2018). The aim of the article is to analyze, based on available data and own observations of the author, the share of biomass in the national energy and heat, as well as defining factors affecting the level of biomass use in the area of Polish power industry.
METADATA IN OTHER LANGUAGES:
Polish
Biomasa w polskim miksie paliw do energetyki i ciepłownictwa
energetyka, ciepłownictwo, biopaliwa stałe, polityka energetyczna Polski, miks energetyczny
W 2008 r. Unia Europejska przyjęła pakiet klimatyczno-energetyczny. Przewiduje on trzy najważniejsze cele do osiągnięcia do 2020 r. w zakresie energetyki, są to: redukcja o 20% emisji gazów cieplarnianych, 20% udział energii ze źródeł odnawialnych w całkowitym zużyciu energii w UE, zwiększenie o 20% efektywności energetycznej UE. W związku z tym poszczególne kraje zobowiązane zostały do odchodzenia od kopalnych surowców energetycznych na rzecz wytwarzania energii z OZE. W zależności od możliwości każdego z krajów oraz rozwoju OZE, wyznaczono różne cele dla poszczególnych państw. Dla Polski cel udziału energii OZE w całkowitym zużyciu energii został ustanowiony na poziomie 15% (Dyrektywa 2009). Polityka energetyczna Polski do 2030 r. zawiera strategie państwa w zakresie realizacji zadań i celów w obszarze energetyki wynikających z potrzeby budowania krajowego bezpieczeństwa oraz regulacji UE. Wyzwania obecnej krajowej energetyki to m.in. wzrastające zapotrzebowanie na energię i realizacja międzynarodowych zobowiązań w obszarze ochrony środowiska i klimatu (Polityka 2009). Współczesna energetyka krajowa charakteryzuje się wysokim udziałem paliw kopalnych, głównie węgla, w produkcji energii elektrycznej i ciepła, a udział OZE jest różny dla w poszczególnych technologiach i sektorach energetycznych. Polska posiada znaczne zasoby naturalne, które stanowią źródło biomasy na cele energetyczne. W krajowym zużyciu biomasy dominują duże jednostki energetyczne, a udział ciepłowni jest wciąż nieznaczny (Olsztyńska 2018). Celem artykułu jest analiza, w oparciu o dostępne dane oraz obserwacje własne autora, udziału biomasy w krajowej energetyce i ciepłownictwie, a także zdefiniowanie czynników wpływających na poziom zastosowania biomasy w obszarze polskiej energetyki.
 
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ISSN:1429-6675