ORIGINAL PAPER
Energy blockade of Donbass and its consequences for Ukraine
 
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Institute of History and Political Sciences, University in Bialystok, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Oksana Voytyuk   

Institute of History and Political Sciences, University in Bialystok, NZS 1, 15-097, Bialystok, Poland
Submission date: 2019-05-19
Final revision date: 2019-08-26
Acceptance date: 2019-08-26
Publication date: 2019-12-20
 
Polityka Energetyczna – Energy Policy Journal 2019;22(4):97–114
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The annexation of Crimea and military operations that began in eastern Ukraine in April 2014 were the cause of the growing threat to Ukraine’s energy security. In terms of coal supplies, Donbass is of key importance for the country’s economy. Despite military operations on the east, illegal trade with the occupied territories was flourishing. This situation led to an increase in dissatisfaction amid certain social strata, as well as among volunteer battalions participants who took part in the military operations in Donbass and were the initiators of the Donbass blockade. The main purpose of the study to analyse the specific of the development of coal industry in Ukraine and the main reasons of the blockade of Donbass and its consequences.
METADATA IN OTHER LANGUAGES:
Polish
Energetyczna blokada Donbasu oraz jej skutki
blokada, Donbas, Ukraina, węgiel
Aneksja Krymu i rozpoczęcie działań wojennych w Donbasie w kwietniu 2014 r. były przyczyną rosnącego zagrożenia bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Ukrainy. Pod względem dostaw węgla Donbas ma kluczowe znaczenie dla gospodarki kraju. Działania wojenne spowodowały wzrost nielegalnego wydobycia i nielegalnego handlu węglem. Sytuacja ta spowodowała nasilenie niezadowolenia społecznego, szczegolnie wśród uczestników batalionów ochotniczych, którzy brali udział w operacjach wojskowych w Donbasie i byli inicjatorami blokady Donbasu. Sytuacja wokół blokady Donbasu jest dość złożona i niejednoznaczna. Z jednej strony wymagania uczestników blokady, aby uwolnić więźniów politycznych i jeńców wojennych, a także ograniczyć finansowanie regionom separatystycznym jest logiczna i uzasadniona. Z drugiej strony istnieją twarde argumenty władzy ukraińskiej o tym, że dostawy węgla marki „A” nie można powstrzymać, gdyż są one niezbędne dla zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa energetycznego państwa. Głównym powodem było to, że zasoby z terenów okupowanych są tańsze w porównaniu z alternatywnymi dostawami węgla z innych państw. Blokada Donbasu negatywnie odbiła się na budżecie Ukrainy. Wysokie wsparcie blokady przez społeczeństwo ukraińskie świadczy o tym, iż ma ono pewne roszczenia do władzy dotyczące „porozumień oligarchów z liderami samozwańczych republik” o interesach biznesowych. Pomimo że ukraiński rząd po „nacjonalizacji” ukraińskich przedsiębiorstw na terenach okupowanych sam został inicjatorem blokady, w kwestii „hybrydowych” relacji z samozwańczymi republikami wspieranymi przez Rosję, trudno znaleźć proste i unikalne rozwiązanie problemu. Najważniejszym celem artykułu była analiza specyfiki rozwoju przemysłu węglowego na Ukrainie oraz głównych przyczyn blokady Donbasu i jej konsekwencji.
 
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ISSN:1429-6675